A population already diminished, that according to the last censo did not exceed the 2900 inhabitants, this culture is concentrated in towns integrated by ayllus, small population establishments and generally made up of a unique familiar trunk. These ayllus are the vestige of the organization of the atacameños before receiving the influence of one of the most important cultures of Latin America: the Incas. Although this culture has happened through different stages throughout its history, at the present time the mining copper activities and saltpeter turned to San Pedro de Atacama a place privileged for the cattle, it is fed in great fields of alfalfa. Nevertheless, today the atacameñas communities face serious problems. The great miners operate the water massively, leaving them without the resource necessary for their agriculture, quite difficult to explode in the desert altiplano of the Second Region.